This page provides you with detailed information about citing and referencing practices. You will get guidance on reference management softwares recommended at Westminster International University in Tashkent: Mendeley, Zotero and MyBib to generate a quick referencing list and for managing your resources.
At the WIUT, unless it is specified by module leader, we use Westminster Harvard style for citing and referencing. Please look into the detailed PDF guide here.
Other than Westminster Harvard style, we also use the following referencing styles:
OSCOLA for Law.
APA for MSc in Public Health Science.
Please remember, every university uses different referencing styles. Therefore, it is advised to read course handbook carefully for specific requirements on referencing.
About Westminster Harvard style
There are various systems as APA, Chicago, Harvard, MHRA, OSCOLA, Oxford and etc. in use for citing references, but most departments at WIUT use the Westminster Harvard style. An essential element of your academic writing is to include citations and references. Your references should be consistent and follow the same format. Westminster Harvard citation and referencing style uses author-date in-text citations. This means, that the author's surname and date of publication are provided inside of round brackets to mark the in-text citations, along with a page number if a direct quotation is used or if a paraphrase follows closely the author's sense.
(Mankiw, 2014, p51)
The in-text author-date citation is paired with the item to which it refers in the list of references provided at the end of the text. For example, the in-text citation (Mankiw, 2014, p51) is accompanied in the reference list by the following entry:
Mankiw, G. (2018). Macroeconomics. New York: Worth Publishers.
The list of references, which is presented in an alphabetical order, provides descriptions of the texts or other resources from which the citation is taken, starting from the author and the date and going on to include title, place of publication and publisher, in the case of a book, or, in the case of a journal article, article title, journal title, volume number, issue number and page numbers. If several items are cited from the same author, they are listed in date order of publication, earliest date comes first.
As an example, a list of references will look like this:
Gujarati, D.N. and Porter, D.C. (2017). Basic econometrics. USA: Mcgraw-Hill/Irwin.
Kotler, P. and Armstrong, G. (2018). Principles of marketing, 17th ed. Hoboken: Pearson Higher Education.
N Gregory Mankiw. (2018). Principles of economics, 9th ed. Boston, USA: Cengage Learning.
Sloman, J. (2019). Economics for business, 8th ed. Harlow, England: Pearson.
Referencing made easy with online tools!
Mendeley is a free reference manager that can help you store, organise, note, share and cite references and research data. It offers a free account with 2GB of storage space when you register and install the desktop version from Mendeley home page . Mac or PC are also available to download from that page. Moreover, WIUT LRC has developed an extensive guide on installing the software and its use. Please check out the detailed instructions here:
Step1. What is Mendeley?
Step 2. Creating an account in Mendeley and Installing Mendeley Desktop.
Step 3. Install necessary plugins to work with Mendeley.
Step 4. Adding sources to Mendeley library.
Step 5. Generate citations and reference list by using Westminster Harvard referencing style.
Please note, when going through the registration process to create a Mendeley account, it’s not advised to use your WIUT email address. Because your personal email will have access to your Mendeley resources indefinitely. Create an individual account.
Mendeley is currently undergoing a transition period and it offers two different software versions:
Which product you should choose to use will depend on the following factors:
If you don’t want your reference list to work against you, refer only to the trustworthy resources!
Zotero is another reference management software as Mendeley that helps you collect, organise, cite and share your research material.
The main benefits of the Zotero:
It constantly develops itself.
Referencing is a way to protect yourself from a serious academic offense such as plagiarism!
MyBib is a free online reference manager, which is widely used among WIUT staff and students. The access link to the platform is located here. MyBib has several standout features:
Please check out our instructional video for more details here:
Be careful with any media source you are using in your assignments!
Creative Commons is an American non-profit organisation and international network devoted to educational access and expanding the range of creative works available for others to build upon legally and to share. The organization has released several copyright licenses, known as Creative Commons licenses, free of charge to the public. These licenses allow authors of creative works to communicate which rights they reserve and which rights they waive for the benefit of recipients or other creators. An easy-to-understand one-page explanation of rights, with associated visual symbols, explains the specifics of each Creative Commons license. Content owners still maintain their copyright, but Creative Commons licenses give standard releases that replace the individual negotiations for specific rights between copyright owner (licensor) and licensee, that are necessary under an "all rights reserved" copyright management.
Here are the best examples of Creative Commons licenses in use.
Please visit the link to learn more on Creative Commons licenses.
Creative Commons licenses give everyone from individual creators to large institutions a standardised way to grant the public permission to use their creative work under copyright law. From the reuser’s perspective, the presence of a Creative Commons license on a copyrighted work answers the question, “What can I do with this work?”
Please see the detailed information about license type here.
Academic Social Networks
Communicate with like minded researchers online!
In all human endeavors/professions, having supportive social connections is very important. Connecting with people in terms of profession, social status, ideologies, etc. facilitates utilization of (human) resources and maximization of opportunities. For instance, having relevant connections can facilitate employment opportunities and admissions (e.g., through recommendation letters from relevant connections). In recent times, people are now more serious about building and sustaining relevant relationships and connections, be it social, academic/professional, ideological, etc. They call it “human networking”. Thanks to social networking technology, building and sustaining relevant connections are now much easier, making it extremely easy to connect with peers and colleagues, seek out new information and disseminate new ideas to the broader public.
Academia is a platform for sharing academic research. Academics have uploaded 22 million papers, and 31 million academics, professionals, and students read articles on Academia every month.
Academia has a "Freemium" business model, providing free access to research for everyone and paid premium capabilities to subscribers. Subscribing to Academia Premium gives researchers access to advanced research discovery tools and gives authors the enhanced analytics and impact tracking tools. Academia has 260,000+ premium which subscribers cover the cost of hosting free research and pursuing our mission.
ResearchGate is the professional network for scientists and researchers. Over 20 million members worldwide use it to share, discover, and discuss research.
The advantages of the ResearchGate
If you still have questions or need specific guidance, please get in touch with library staff here.